E-Bus 2020

The E-bus 2020 – In Motion Charging (IMC) and Smart Trolley Grid (STG) are both related to Clean and Sustainable energy in Public transport in the Municipality of Arnhem. The IMC Project investigates the usage of a hybrid drive-line; the overhead wiring is used to both propel the eBus 2020 IMC and to charge the on-board batteries. Thus, making it operationally feasible to drive without overhead lines (no overhead wiring) for a substantial range, for example from Arnhem to Huissen, to Elst, or to Wageningen.


The targets set by the EU for the reduction of emissions can only be achieved by replacing the entire vehicle fleet of buses in the public transportation sector. This could be made possible by the project "E-bus 2020 In Motion Charging". Throughout the world, there are about 303 existing trolley networks, all of which are potential customers for the direct application of the technology being developed. In studies of the German and Dutch government, trolley bus is seen as the only possible application of electromobility in the buses of the public transportation sector of medium and large cities for vehicles with a length of 18 m. Throughout Europe, battery buses with a length of 12 m and with different charging concepts were developed. The application is limited to a small number of vehicles on specially selected lines. Conversion of the total vehicle fleet of buses in public transportation sector with these concepts is just not possible. The charging concept should be considered by taking into consideration an economic and practical point of view, for example:

  • Space for charging infrastructure.
  • Power Charging present.
  • Cost of the charging infrastructure for the entire fleet.

The use of batteries buses with a length of 18 m, that charge at the final destination is not economical due to their large charging time. A solution for this would be the use of fuel cells. The purchase price and the maintenance costs of fuel cell buses are significantly higher than that of batteries in trolley buses. The electrical mobility will increase the energy consumption of the city. For this reason, expansion of the grid will be required. In the project "E-bus 2020 in Motion Charging" the electrical cables is expanded into a "Smart Grid". This creates a unique application of trolley infrastructure. The batteries will also be able to store energy by regenerative braking or solar power, by which the available energy is used more efficiently.

E-Bus 2020 - In Motion Charging (IMC) - YouTube

Final Outcomes

The project includes the development of new innovative products which could be used in public transportation buses (18 and 24 m articulated buses). The 18 m long Trolley 2.0 has a range of 10 km without overhead cables and an optimal efficiency for the entire energy chain is required for the deployment of battery buses. To develop this, existing products in terms of energy consumption of vehicles have to be optimized or new products need to be developed. After completion of the project, these technologies could be as reliable as the products on the market. Owing to the fact that the use of overhead wires could be significantly reduced, costs can be saved. In total, it may require approximately 50% of the overhead lines. The use of expensive connections and switches and could be eliminated. The number of sub-stations could also be reduced. In total, the cost can be reduced by about 35%. "In Motion Charging" (IMC) - Charging while driving - ensures the high productivity of both the bus and the driver is maintained. As part of this project, the existing overhead lines are also used as a basis for "Smart Grid".

HAN Automotive Research develops a mathematical model, investigating the battery capacity required to drive a defined range without overhead wiring and accumulate sufficient energy during the wired range on the specific route to drive through the unwired range.